Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Sunday, July 21st, 2019

Security Dilemma: the Public support as a strategic solution

Afghanistan has been suffering heavily from lack of security for more than 4 decades. It has witnessed and tested various governments ranging from the communist, Mujahedin, Taliban and elected democratic governments during the last 4 decades. During this period, one issue has remained, more or less, the same; lack of security. From Communist government, and before, lack of public supporthas been the missing element of security; lack of the full support of the people from different governments has been the main cause of the security failures of Afghan governments; All the Afghan citizens, different ethnics, have not accepted these governments as a legitimate one.  Further, as the history of Afghanistan shows nearly all Afghan rulers have faced more or less the issue of legitimacy. If we go through the history and analyze the method of resuming power by these rulers, we will find one common thing; taking power without insolvent of all the social groups. Since nearly all the rulers of the country have gained and extended their power based on an ethnic-region basis, they have tried to provide most of the resources and opportunities to those people.
Consequences of Ethnic-Regional based governance policies
Lack of inclusiveness; A governance system based on Ethnic-Regional based governance policies, faces structural deficiencies in terms of inclusiveness; the power of such governance origins from the ethnic-region politics. It is selected and assigned to ensure the interests of a particular ethnic or region. Other people neither are integrated in the government institutions, nor does the government represent them. Such a strategic gap, not only makes the government vulnerable to foreign interventions but also shapes the mindset of the people to perceive it as an alien phenomenon. Therefore, these two factors, existing as a presumption weakness in the governance system, makes it vulnerable to rely fully on both the ethnic-region and foreign allies.
Lack of transparency and accountability; Such type of governance system neither tend nor can be transparent and accountable. Because, such a government either shall allocate almost all of the resources and opportunities to a specific ethnic or region or risk losing the support of those ones and sooner or later may collapse. On the other hand, if it keeps on with its Ethnic-Regional based governance policies, it will ultimately face the rejection of the other ethnics-regions stakeholders. A situation that creates fundamental socio-political obstacles to the government and not only undermines its authority by posing constant security challenges but undermines its legitimacy as well.
Lack of participatory mechanisms; Participation of all citizens ensures the legitimacy and authority of a government. If a government lacks such mechanisms, it will never be able to mobilize the full support of all its citizens to its strategic vision, policies and strategies. Without, the support of all citizens the government not only deprives itself of using the natural resources in different parts of the country but also will never be able to use the human resource potentials, as the most valuable and scarce resource, of a nation.
Lack of elected bodies or weak and corrupted elected bodies; this type of government usually does not support elected bodies unless they benefit its strategic objectives. The elected bodies in such government systems, in most cases are a fabricated one. The government establishes and supports such institutions to gain the vote and support of the people to empower the government to realize its ethnic-regional interests. In most cases, such institutions lack the real support of their constituents and even come to power trough corrupt practices. Lacking the support of the people and relying on corrupt practices, result in weak and corrupt representative bodies that their main function would be acting as a tool for the government policies and not as a tool to represent and ensure the rights of the citizens.
Lack of security has been a strategic challenge, at least, more than 4 decades in the country. And lack of full public support has been one of the most influential causal factors of security dilemma in Afghanistan; this dilemma is the result of the ethnic-region mechanisms due to the tribal political structures of Afghanistan and the dominance of tribal culture as the main governance paradigm and governance basis in Afghanistan, that has resulted to ethnic-region based governance systems, mobilizing the support of one ethnic for the government and barring the support of other ethnic-regions from the government.
The lesson we learn from this approach is that, lack of the public support from the governments, has been the main strategic weakness of the Afghan governments in the past that not only has paved the way for foreign interventions, but also has always created a conducive environment for public dissatisfactions and opposition against the governments in the country. As a result, the NUG shall learn strategic lessons from the past and take all the measures to realize the pledges it has made to the people in terms of balanced economic development, comprehensive inclusion and distribution of all opportunities in an equal manner among all the Afghan citizens to gain their full support and overcome the security challenges of the country.