Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Monday, June 1st, 2020

The Emirate system, the Basis of Discrimination

The Intra-Afghan talks between representatives of Taliban and Afghan delegation, without a representative of the Afghan government –in Doha, Qatar, ended in Doha, Qatar, after the two sides agreed on a declaration. Therefore, it is necessary to have a brief review on the two systems here.
Emirates and Sultanates are analogous to kingdoms and duchies. A Sultan is the king of an Islamic state, similar to the way a European king was the ruler (in the Middle Ages) of a Catholic/Christian state. An Emir can mean a military commander and/or ruler of an Islamic State.
The best analogy is this: a sultan or an emir will rule a Muslim nation, and will be (or claim to be) themselves a Muslim, but they will rule based on their personal authority.
However, a republic system is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people.
Emirates and Sultanates as the Causes of Conflicts in Afghanistan
In Afghanistan there has been a great deal of discrimination including gender, racial and religious discrimination during the course of the history. Specific groups of Afghan citizens have suffered a lot due to lack of a democracy, a fair government. As a result, there have been tensions between religions and racist beliefs in the country. Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world. Discriminatory constitutions that enabled the unfair rulers to govern and bad governance system to suppress the people have been the consequences of discriminatory constitutions in Afghanistan in the past. 
Based on these constitutions, women and girls were discriminated against and isolated, and their human rights were taken away. This resulted in the failing economic and social conditions of women and girls in all areas of the country. Women and girls continued to be severely restricted in their access to education, health care facilities and employment. They also severely limited women’s freedom of movement.
Islamic Republic, the Biggest Democratic Achievement of Afghans
The new constitution f Afghanistan that was approved in 2004 is one of the most outstanding achievements of Afghanistan. The charter, which embraces democracy, human rights, and equality for women, holds the promise of taking Afghanistan out of the Dark Ages toward modernity. Needless to be mentioned that it is one of the most enlightened Constitutions in the Islamic world. The first Article of this constitution declares Afghanistan an “Islamic Republic.” Islam is declared to be the official religion of the state. And the Constitution expressly prohibits any law “contrary to the beliefs and provisions of the sacred religion of Islam. Meanwhile, this Constitution is uncompromisingly democratic and pro-human rights. It has obliged the state “to create a prosperous and progressive society based on social justice,” to “protect human rights,” and to realize “democracy.” The new constitution provides mechanisms and has obliged the state to enforce the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women; that is especially significant for women because Afghanistan has acceted the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Thus, under the new Afghan Constitution, the Independent Human Rights Commission is able to enforce CEDAW, among other “international conventions that Afghanistan has signed.
The Afghan Constitution is the redline of the Peace talks. However, it was deliberately ignored and not mentioned in the Qatar Intra-Afghan peace talks declaration. This shows that Taliban’s mindset has not changed and they do not believe in democracy and equality of all Afghan citizens before the law. Refusing the current constitution, elimination of “Republic” and emphasizing only on Islamic system and not the “Islamic republic”, indicate that Taliban only pursue their own version of the government, ‘The Emirate”, that can be once more the basis of discrimination against different groups of people in the country.