Rise of violent crime is one of the alarming issues in Afghanistan cities in General. Kabul has been the scene of surge of violent crimes recently. Violent crime is a broad designation consisting of the most egregious infractions — aggravated assault, robbery, rape, and murder in Afghan main cities. As a result, the incidence of violent crime in the major cities remains as one of the main concerns of Afghan citizens that call on the government to take concrete steps to address the increasing rate of crime in the country.
In order to better understand, identify and solve the social deviance in our big cities, we better to attend to the distinction between proximate and distal causes of crime. Proximate causes are those which immediately precede criminal behavior. Distal causes are those which are more remote. Sociology scholars argue that one proximate cause of involvement in crime is association with delinquent peers. Some have argued that association with delinquent peers is caused by weak parent-child attachment. If this argument is accepted, association with delinquent peers can be seen as a proximate cause of involvement in crime and weak parent-child attachment a distal cause.
The distinction between distal and proximate causes is relative rather than absolute. What, in one context, appears to be a distal cause of involvement in crime can, in another, be thought of as a proximate cause. Some criminologists, for example, argue that parents often fail to develop strong emotional bonds to their children when they are exposed to economic stress
If this argument is accepted, economic stress can be thought of as a distal cause of involvement in crime, with weak parent-child attachment being a more proximate cause. What constitutes a distal or a proximate cause of crime depends upon which part of the chain of causes leading to crime is under discussion
What Causes Crime?
It seems straightforward to ask what causes crime. However, the question is not always clear.
Depending on the context, it might mean (1) Why crime is more popular among one ethnic group than others? (2)What prompts individuals to get involved in crime? (3) Why do certain individuals offend more frequently than others? (4) Why do some individuals remain in crime longer than others? (5) Why are some offences more common than others? (5) Why are certain areas more crime-prone than others? Or (7) Why is crime higher at some time periods than others?
To answer each question, one may implicate several factors in the answers. Considering the role of the family as the first social institution, family factors may be the main reason individuals get involved in crime but drug dependence may be the main distinguishing factor between those who offend frequently and those who offend only occasionally. Individuals may commit robbery to raise cash to purchase illicit drugs but robbery rates may be more prevalent in some areas because of the greater supply of attractive commercial targets. Physical violence toward children may be a major cause of their becoming violent as adults, but the growth in particular kinds of adult violence may be attributable to the availability of dangerous weapons. In asking what causes crime we need to be clear about the precise question we are trying to answer.
We know a good deal more about patterns and causes of individual involvement in crime than about the factors which create crime-prone places. However we also know a good deal more about the factors which create crime-prone places than about the factors which influence trends in crime over time. Social science scholars hold that there is no single factor or set of factors which causes an individual to become involved in crime. Being criminal is not like having a disease. Most people at some stage in their lives commit crime of some sort, even if it involves nothing more serious than driving above the speed limit.
Because crime is not the result of any single factor or combination of factors, it makes no sense to seek to control crime by any single strategy or set of strategies. As a result, Afghan government shall use a mix of strategies to counter crime. The emphasis on particular strategies should vary according to the nature of the crime problem at hand, the available options for influencing the problem and the urgency with which change is required. The Law and Order institutions are better off trying to influence as many factors as possible, rather than concentrating all their efforts on one or two factors.