Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Monday, September 28th, 2020

Coronavirus: the Most Dangerous Disease in Last 20 Centuries

The Coronavirus seems to be one of the deadliest diseases in twenty first century. Though the modern world is equipped with advanced technologies, it shortly has infiltrated to more than 30 countries in four continents of the world. Since the emergence of the virus many cities have been quarantined; the world economy stagnated, dozens of flights stopped and panic shortly swept around the world. The numbers of death tolls have reached to more than 1800; the numbers of infected cases has reached to71000 while still increasing. The highest outbreak after China is in Singapore and Japan. Last week, the Diamond Princes cruise ship has been docked for two weeks to test thousands of passengers and more than 456 cases of the virus have been found on board, but Japanese authorities have confirmed 99 only five cases.  However, the factual number of causalities may be much higher than the current reported figures.
According to the World Health Organization, the corona-virus is a large family of viruses that cause a wide range of diseases, ranging from the common cold to more serious illnesses such as MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) and SARS (severe and severe respiratory syndrome) but the new corona-virus is a new type of virus that has never been reported before. The corona-virus is one of those viruses that can be transmitted amongst humans and animals. According to the World Health Organization, SARS was transmitted from cats to human being and MERS from camels while several types of coronavirus have been observed in animals but not yet infected humans.
In order to successfully fight against the diseases may be we need to learn lessons from similar events which occurred in the history.  Historically, the outbreak of communicable disease such as plague, cholera, influenza and smallpox are the most dangerous virus that left enormous impacts on human civilizations. The first type of the deadly disease was Hong Kong Flu which killed about one million people in Asia, Australia, Europe and USA from 1968 to 1969. The disease originated from the Hong Kong but rapidly reached to the four mentioned continents. This disease still exists but the severity of the virus function varies from region to region. This disease affected a few people in Japan but more prevailed in the United States. The most vulnerable groups against the virus were children and the elderly people. The vaccine developed for the virus became available only after the disease had intensified. Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus.
The second deadly disease was Cholera that killed about one million people in India, Asia, Europe, North America and Africa from 1852 to 1860. Initially, the virus was found in England but it was originated from India and then spread to several continents. At that time, a medical scientist known as John Snow who was also one of the inventors of modern epidemiology conducted a study led to conclusion that cholera was originated from water. He tracked the high cholera outbreak on a London street and found that water pump was contaminated. Cholera is a gastrointestinal illness cause body to lose its water and can die if left untreated.
The third deadly disease was Russian flu which left about one million causalities in Turkistan, Canada and Greenland during 1890 to 1899 occurred after construction of the European railways.  The fourth type of deadly disease was tuberculosis (TB) which killed more than 1.3 million people Worldwide in 2012. Some statistics show that this bacterium has infiltrated to one-third of the world’s population. It is sad that the US was more successful in control of this virus. According to the US National Institutes of Health, the number of people infected with the disease in the United States is only 11,000 cases a year.
The fifth deadly disease was epidemic cholera which killed 1.5 million people in Middle East, North Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia from 1899 to 1923. Firstly, the disease was seen in the Bengal province of India and then infiltrated to the Middle East, North Africa, Russia, and parts of Europe.The sixth deadly disease was caused by the Asian H2N2 virus which killed 2 million people in China, Singapore, Hung Kong, England and America from 1957 to 1958. This virus was one of the most complicated viruses combined from avian influenza and human influenza.
The seventh type of deadly disease was Typhus which left 3 million casualties in Russia and Eastern Europe from 1918 to 1922. The eighth type of deadly disease was Antoninous Plague which killed 5 million people in Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece and Italy in 165 after Christ’s birth.  The ninth type of deadly disease was Mexico Smallpox which killed nearly 8 million people in Mexico from 1519 to 1520. The tenth type of disease was the Modern plague which killed 10 million people in India, China and other parts of the world from 1894 to 1903.  The eleventh type of disease was Coccolithelia which killed nearly 15 million in Mexico from 1545 to 1548.  The twelfth type of disease was Lymphatic Plague which killed nearly 15 million people worldwide from 1850 to 1855. The thirteen type of deadly disease was Smallpox among Native Americans which killed nearly 20 million people in the beginning of 17th century. The fourteen types of disease was Spanish flu which killed about 20 million people in Europe and USA from 1918 to 1919. The fifteen type of deadly disease was HIV / AIDS epidemic which have killed 39 million people since 1960 up to the date. The sixteen types of disease was Black Death which killed nearly 200 million people in Europe from 1350 to 1346. The seventeen types the disease was Justin’s plague which killed 100 million people from 541 to 542.