Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Saturday, November 28th, 2020

The Poverty of Political Thoughts in Afghanistan

One of the most fundamental problems in Afghanistan is the poverty of political thoughts and political thinkers. Although there were many expert political thinkers and political fighters in the history of the country, their experiences, dreams and solutions have not followed in the country yet.  The poverty of political thoughts has not only paved the ground for religious and ethnic radical groups but also has created opportunities for villains, murderers, hypocrites, mafias etc. to play a leading role in politics of Afghanistan. Unlike other countries, the whole political stances such as political fractions, political parties, and political coalitions have been taken on the basis of ethnic or religious tendencies. Instead of political development, ethnical and religious hostilities have been developed; instead of meritocratic culture, the culture of tribalism, nepotism and corruption has been cultivated and eventually instead of state building or political oneness, political divisions have been expanded and rooted in the country. 
Given the poverty of political thoughts and anarchic conditions in the country, the basic question is what should we do? What is the way-out from these political crises? One way  out of the current chaotic condition is to review the political thoughts and experiences of the past political thinkers; because many political problems of the current era are rooted in the past. This way, we would not only materialize their sacred dreams but also learn their experience how to cope with the current political troubles. One of the most famous social and political thinkers of Afghanistan was Sayyeed Jamalluddin Afghani. He not only played an awaking role at the national level but also at Muslim world level.  At the national level, he played a reforming and uniting role in social and political arena. He deeply influenced on personality of Shir Ali Khan and so Shir-Ali-Khan made a lot of changes in the country. He encouraged Shir-Ali-Khan for political inclusiveness and national participation and therefore, the government of Shir-Ali-Khan was one the most inclusive government mirroring all ethnic groups including Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara and so on. He also influenced on the personality of Mohmood Tarzee and made him one the most effective personality in the political history of Afghanistan.
As pointed out, the second effective personality and thinker of Afghanistan was Mahmood Tarzee. Although many know that he was born in Ghazni province, he belongs to Mohammad Zai tribe and he was exiled by Abdur Rahman Khan, very few people may have followed his messages and experiences to seek practical solutions for the ongoing crises. Mahmood Tarzee was of the first political hero who paved the way for independence of Afghanistan and fought for establishment of an open society through journalism. Therefore, he is called the father of journalism in Afghanistan. Although he was exiled from the country, he used it as an opportunity to enrich his experience about social and political development in Turkey, Egypt and Syria. When he returned into the country, he produced a lot of theories about national independence, science, technology, unity, role of woman in social and family life. Thus, he was an actionist personality providing so many practical solutions to the problems of the country. For example, he was an active member and leader of constitutionalism working hard to rescue the country from despotism. He established Sarajul-Akhbar in order to raise social and political awareness and pave the way for independence of the country. In order to strengthen the national unity, and fill the religious gaps in the country, he suggested that Shia should recognize the four caliphates of Sunni and in exchange the Sunni should also recognize Shia as fifth branch of Sunni Islam. According to him, there is no fundamental way for social and political development of the country other than promotion of science and scientific activities. Despite his formal activities, he wrote about 25 books and nearly 500 scientific articles. Mahmood Tarzee went but his sayings are always alive in the country. He said, “The country is body but education is its soul.” The nation is asleep but its awakener is education.” Eventually, if Amanullah Khan is considered as the political leader of the independence, Mahmood Tarzee should be considered as an intellectual leader of the country’s independence.
The next political leader and thinker of the country that produced a lot of theories and political plan for political development and national unity was Abdul Ali Mazarri, the National Unity Martyre. He proposed very strategic and structural plans for the people of Afghanistan and Jehadist groups.  He believed that lack of social and political justice, in political behavior of Afghanistan, is not only a great factor for illiteracy of the political system but also a great barrier in the way to national unity. For example, he said that Hazara and Shia forms one third of Afghanistan’s population but they do not own only one province. He stressed that national unity is not possible without national justice.  He said we are not the lover of anyone’s eyes and cheeks but we are the friend of those who recognize the rights and equality of citizens. If freedom, justice and human rights are valuable, it must be valuable for all people equally.