Most of world's refugees are Afghans. United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees has said that Afghan citizens continue to be most of the world's refugees. Violence and instability in Afghanistan are considered to be the main causes of forced migration of Afghan people. The Taliban and other insurgent groups have continued to cause violence. They plant roadside bombs, carry out suicide attacks, attack and kidnap passengers along highways, burn schools and target teachers and schoolchildren. This has brought about an atmosphere of fear. The deeper fear comes about the ambiguity of the future.
Afghan people see the future as bleak for a number of reasons;
1) The Taliban have maintained their ability to cause terror in the cities and villages alike. They continue to claim Afghans' lives through roadside bombing, suicide attack and hit-and-run tactics.
2) President Hamid Karzai's government is unable and unwilling to mobilize forces against those lunatic fringes. President Karzai's overly conciliatory approach towards the Taliban has given rise to the concern that the President is going to hand over the power to the Taliban through a deal to make sure that the Taliban will not hang him like former President Dr. Najib. Since Afghan people have already suffered in the brutal hands of the Taliban, they make efforts to escape another ordeal under the Taliban, exploring ways to reach to Europe or Australia and Canada.
3) There are some circles supported by President Karzai's government that attempt to provoke ethnic issues. For instance, the Academy of Sciences has published a new encyclopedia as well as Atlas Ethnography of Non-Pashtun Ethnic groups of Afghanistan with fabricated statistics about Afghan ethnic population and false stories about their history.
In these books, some ethnic groups have been insulted as they have been called liars, heretic and so many other insulting attributes. After Mohammad Mohaqiq, a highly influential Hazara leader and a senior member of the National Front of Afghanistan- the main opposition coalition- called the Ethnography as insulting, the Academy has decided to collect them back. This renders the post-NATO withdrawal situation murkier. Many Afghans do not want to get trapped in another round of ethnic conflicts thus try to get out of the country.
4) The government has failed to generate job opportunities for the people. It is said that about a million Afghans are jobless. Having been let down by Karzai's government, the people seek other ways to get into other countries to ensure their livelihood.