Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Saturday, August 8th, 2020

Social Capital Deficit

How society is organized hinges on the presence and absence of social capital, which is defined as social values, networks, and institutions that promote trust and cooperation. Social capital is also defined to be "the strength of relations, the willingness to act on trust." The level of cooperation within a community or society depends on the level of social capital or trust present in that given community or society. Afghanistan has been going through years of war ordeal and continues to suffer from the ongoing conflict, which appears to have no immediate end.

While there are many external causes, it should be said that the social capital deficit has greatly contributed to the ills faced by the country. National identity has not been in place to serve as glue to hold the society together against all the external interferences and conspiracies. The authoritarian rulers have preferred not to cultivate democratic and modern culture. Instead, they have tried to play by the tribal culture with all its vicious characteristics and traits. They have even attempted to maintain the social tension in the society. For example, the rulers have never tried to settle the Nomadic Kuchis that continue to be a cause of tension between the people and create problem for the local population in central parts of the country. It happens while modernizing nomadic culture would be helpful for the Kuchis to emerge out of the primitive way of life, disadvantage, deprivation and hardships of the life. The rulers of the country, by settling them, can ensure their rights to education and other social welfare or decent standard of living.

It is to be said that turnaround in official attitudes and policies could unleash the potential for development and social unity and stability, which will serve as an important factor to strengthen the country against foreign interferences and meddling believed to be the main cause of insecurity and instability in the country. By keeping the social tension alive, the rulers reduce the chance of rule by law. Instead of creating and mobilizing social capital to promote rule of law and overcome the security problems, the rulers have often resorted to strategy of diversion, which can offer no permanent solution to the suffering of Afghan people. The rulers have failed to establish an order based on trust relations.