Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Sunday, May 26th, 2019

The Need for International Solidarity in Fight Against Terrorism

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The Need for International  Solidarity in Fight  Against Terrorism

Historically, terrorism gets back to the origin of human society, but now terrorism and religious-ethnic fundamentalism are considered to be contingent upon each other. The three major incidents of the past three decades, including the collapse of the Soviet Union, the September 11 event and the Arab Spring of 2011, have played a major role in increasing terrorism and religious fundamentalism, especially in the Middle East. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the liberation of many nations from the dictatorship of socialist countries around the world. The collapse of many governments has strengthened decentralized forces as they either established domestic networks or joined foreign terrorist organizations. Al-Qaeda and the Taliban are the examples that came out from the heart of two governments, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
When the world became unipolar, the fundamentalists sought to launch war against the United States and globalize jihad; as a result, they organized numerous attacks on American targets in the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, and elsewhere in the world. The US invasion of Afghanistan and then Iraq caused much great hatred in the Arab world, and so many Arab angry youth considered it aggression on Arab-Islamic identity. During Iraq and Afghanistan war terrorist organizations tried to use religious and nationalist sentiment to foster mobilization and persistence of violence in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The Arab Spring 2011 has released violent forces across the Middle East and even South Asia. Because the Middle East dictatorships have severely suppressed their people, as soon as democracy voiced from Tunisia, they used the opportunity, and violence became a daily phenomena which resulted in complete destruction of Iraq and Syria. Although geographically Afghanistan was located far away from the heart of the Arab Spring, it badly affected by this process. As the process covered a vast geography throughout the Muslim world, especially in Western Asia, the radical religious forces could not resist against the attraction of this violence. Thus, the Khorasan branch of ISIS group was formed and many members ofTaliban and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan were also attracted. 
Now, the fundamental question is why combating terrorism and fundamentalism requires international convergence? To answer this question, first, the interdependence theory must be explained. Based on this theory which has liberal origins, all countries are in a condition that they cannot survive without affecting or influencing each other. The process of globalization of economics, politics, and culture has more strengthened the theory of interdependency and the view that all human societies are in a situation that they need to interrelate with each other and cannot disregard others as did in the past.
According to this theory, the industrialized countries of West and East Asia need the Third World market and raw materials. On the other hand, the developing countries are in need of advanced technology and industrial goods of developed world; it is impossible to imagine the life cycle of the world without this trade. Based on the theory of interdependence, all countries are affected by each issue. Terrorism and fundamentalism are of social concepts that have a dynamic and fluid state and do not belong to a particular society, and its consequences are not limited to one society. Underdeveloped and poor countries send hundreds of thousands of refugees to the developed countries of Europe and North America annually.These asylum seekers can also transmit these mentalities to the developed countries and spontaneously provide the basis for the expansion of religious or ethnic fundamentalism in the receiving countries.
When we look at the globalized world, it is clearly seen that the phenomena of terrorism and fundamentalism in Europe are rooted in the Middle East conflicts due to inability of governments in the Third World and the expansionist policies of the great powers. As think tanks in Washington, Beijing and Moscow can have global effects, terrorism, fundamentalism and drug trafficking, which are prevalent in Afghanistan and Pakistan, can also have global effects because the countries of the world are in a two-way trade.
Some countries in the world are trying to exploit fundamentalists and terrorism to reach their national interests. Pakistan is one of the countries that have always been criticized by international community. Pakistan in the last decade of the Cold War, with the help of religious fundamentalists from both Afghanistan and the Arab world, was able to achieve great benefits in the region. Receiving billions of dollars from the United States and Saudi Arabia are examples of it. Pakistan, after the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, tried to support the Taliban and interpreted the Taliban’s radical regime in line with its national interests because Pakistan’s political and security thinkers believe that are not in a position to compete with India in the field of economic and technological power.
Pakistani strategists think that fundamentalists and terrorism are relatively inexpensive tools that can be used to secure the interests of that country. The last week terrorist attacks in Kashmir and also Zahidan showed that no place in the world, especially in Middle East is safe. It is true that terrorists and fundamentalists are categorized as irrational actors, but Pakistani thinkers and strategists are very rational actors. Whenever Pakistani interests are truly pressurized by the world, they will desist from supporting terrorists because they will calculatedly choose a right way. Therefore, the unilateral efforts of governments, including Afghanistan, India, Iran, China, Russia and even the United States, to combat terrorism will not lead to a conclusion because it is a global phenomenon and Needs comprehensive and International mechanism to deal with it.

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